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Technical Analysis – A Beginner Guide

What is Technical Analysis?

Technical analysis is a tool or approach for predicting the likely future price movement of a security based on market data, such as a stock or currency pair.

At first, technical analysis of stock, or the use of charts to find trade signals and price patterns, may appear daunting or complicated.

Beginners should first comprehend why technical analysis of stock or currency pairs can be used to uncover profit chances by providing a window into market psychology.

Do technical analysis really work?

Yes, Technical Analysis of stock does work and it gives you a competitive advantage in the markets. Many investors do a fundamental analysis of stock, such as sales, valuation, or industry trends, but fundamental analysis factors are doesn’t necessarily reflected in market pricing. Technical analysis examines past data, primarily price and volume, in order to forecast price moves.

The validity of technical analysis of stock is based on the idea that all market participants' aggregate activities - buying and selling – accurately reflect all relevant information about a traded asset and, as a result, continuously assign a fair market value to the security.

Different time frames used

Price charts are analyzed by technical traders in order to forecast price movement. The time frames that are considered and the technical indicators that a trader decides to use are the two most important elements in technical analysis.

Technical analysis time frames on charts can range from one minute to monthly or even yearly time periods. The following are some of the most common time frames that technical analysts look at:

  • 5-minute chart

  • 15-minute chart

  • Hourly chart

  • 4-hour chart

  • Daily chart

The time frame that a trader studies are usually defined by his or her own particular trading strategy. Intra-day traders like to analyze price movement on shorter time frame charts, such as the 5-minute or 15-minute charts because they initiate and terminate trading positions within a single trading day. Long-term traders who maintain market positions overnight or for extended periods of time are more likely to use hourly, 4-hour, daily, or even weekly charts to assess markets.

Technical Indicators

Technical indicators are chart analysis tools that can aid traders in better comprehending and reacting to market movement. Technical analysis tools that evaluate patterns, provide price averages, assess volatility, and more are all accessible.

Let’s discuss some of the main technical indicators -

Moving Averages

Moving averages are among the oldest technical indicators, and they continue to be among the most useful for market analysis utilizing the technical analysis approach. A moving average is simply the average price of an asset at a given point in time.

Momentum indicators

Momentum indicators are technical analysis techniques that are used to identify whether a stock's price is strong or weak. The momentum indicators aid in determining the rate or pace of change in stock values. Price movement, current price, and closing price are the three key factors that constitute a stock's momentum.

Stock chart pattern analysis is the foundation of technical analysis. But,

What is a stock chart pattern?

The theory behind stock chart patterns is founded on the assumption that certain patterns recur frequently and create similar results. Trading signals — or hints of future price movements – can be identified using stock chart patterns. Transitions between rising and declining trends are frequently suggested by price patterns in technical analysis.

Types of Patterns

The two most popular stock chart patterns are reversals and continuations. By combining the dynamics of supply and demand into a clear picture, stock chart patterns put buying and selling into context.

Reversal Patterns

A reversal pattern indicates that a previous trend will reverse once the pattern is completed.

Continuation pattern

A continuation pattern indicates that the price will continue to move in the same direction as it did before the pattern was completed.

One of the best things about stock chart patterns is that they tend to repeat themselves. The appeal to human psychology, particularly trader psychology, is aided by this repetition. Price patterns have long been employed by technical analysts to analyze current market movements and forecast future market movements.

Technical Analysis Strategies

Technical analysis strategies look at past data, primarily price and volume, to predict price moves. It employs approaches such as statistical analysis and behavioral economics to assist traders and investors in navigating the gap between intrinsic value and market pricing.

Choose the Right Approach

The top-down technique and the bottom-up approach are the two most common approaches to technical analysis. Short-term traders frequently employ a top-down technique, whereas long-term investors employ a bottom-up method.


The top-down strategy is a macroeconomic analysis that considers the entire economy before focusing on specific securities. In the case of equities, a trader would initially focus on economies, then sectors, and last firms.


Instead of taking a macroeconomic view, the bottom-up strategy concentrates on individual stocks. It entails looking for potential entry and exit points in a stock that appears to be fundamentally interesting.

The Bottom Line

When making investment decisions, many investors use both fundamental analysis and technical research since technical analysis helps fill in information gaps. Traders and investors can increase their long-term risk-adjusted returns by learning how to use technical analysis.

What is a trading system?

A trading system is a set of rules that are based on technical or fundamental analysis. A trading system instructs a trader on when to trade and how to trade. Trading systems are often used as a blueprint for trading.

A trading system is essential for a trader since, without it he or she will be unable to trade. Even if you get lucky a couple of times, you can't expect to be consistently profitable unless you use a trading system or method.

Trading systems, often known as trading strategies, are the foundation of all types of traders. While money management and risk management are important factors in trading success, without a trading system or plan, a trader is left with nothing.

The different types of trading systems are –

  • Mechanical trading system

  • Discretionary trading system

A trading system based on technical indicators is one option, while a trading system based on fundamentals is another.

Mechanical Trading System

  • A mechanical trading system, as the name implies, is based on a set of trading rules.

  • When the trading requirements are met, a buy or sell trade is initiated.

  • You can also create a macroeconomic trading system using a mechanical trading system.

Auto-trading System

  • Auto-trading is without a doubt one of the most popular methods of day trading. Because the market is nothing more than the emotional sum of its participants, an auto trading system will allow a trader to be free of noise and emotions.

  • Trading techniques have this power because they can assist you remove the two most prevalent emotions: greed and fear.

  • Regardless of the investor's emotional state at the time the transaction is initiated, the system will execute a trading signal.

  • A trading system can easily trade based on rules, however a trader's emotions can have a significant impact on the trading outcome.

Reviewing a Trading System

The important thing to remember is to pay attention not just to the gains over a set period of time, but also to the system's maximum drawdown and risk exposure.

It doesn't mean much if a trading system that trades during a bear market makes a lot of money when the markets are falling. During a market uptrend, the trading system should also be tested.

Remember that it is your total faith in the approach, not the system that will ultimately lead to success.

Wondering how to start technical analysis?

There are mainly 5 steps to getting started in technical analysis –

1. Pick a Strategy or Develop a Trading System

2. Identify Stocks

3. Find a Right Brokerage

4. Track and Monitor Trades

5. Use additional Software or Tools

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